These days pupils are always on the move. Atleast, in their digital and social world. But the problem is, they are very technology minded but also technology savvy. They are interested in technology, but they don´t learn how to use it properly by themselves. (Van den Beemt, 2014) An example of this is pupils posting stuff they'll regret.
So how can we, teachers, use this interactive media our pupils use? In a good and educational way? But before we discuss how, we should first realize that learning isn't something you only do at school. Our pupils learn all the time. On fora, exchange information with friends or look for answers on Google. So school isn't the only place were they do this, they do this everywere. At school, at home, on Facebook or with friends.
We want to know, which media do our pupils use. When we know that, we can try if using these media effects the learning results or motivation of our pupils. In this book 'Leren met interactieve media' they talk about an learning ecology: an complex, adaptive and social environment were people learn together and exchange information. This could be fysical or virtual. Learning formal, informal or not-formal. It are sort of communities. Usually an learning ecology is informal and you join it because your are interested in it's subjects. So it's selforganizing. But as a teacher you try to create an learning ecology by yourself were you have an more structural and formal way of exchanging knowledge. This learning ecology is also based on the principles of (Vygotsky, 1978) were learning is a part of interaction between an social environment and yourself.
The thing you have to do as a teacher is to adapt to the interests of your pupils, their personal situations and their needs. As in the book is stated aswell, I think it would be incredibly hard to realize this 'learning ecology'. As I remember from my past class (age 11-12) their interests change so fast. And it would be very hard to create an environment that suits everyone their personal situations and needs. It would almost be like creating a game. And though I don't think it would be possible, it would be amazing if it would actually happen, and work.
What I think would work, would be a small Twitter or blog learning ecology. That your pupils also have a school-learning-ecology. Were they can share their interests for school and discuss school related subjects. Examples of this are found all over Twitter. This is an dutch example: www.josmontulet.nl
- Van den Beemt, A, (2014). Leren met interactieve media. Assen: Van Gorcum
Before I started this minor I was rather sceptical about using social media inside the classroom, with learning benefits.
Now that the minor ended I see lots of possibilities and almost become annoyed by people don't willing to try new things, like social media.Why should you even try, using social media in your class? Well, it could increase your parent involvement which is a positive contribution to the succes the pupils will have on school. (Holter & Bruinsma, 2009;Marzano, 2007; WRR, 2009, Hattie, 2007) Using for instance, Twitter or letting your pupils post blogs about what they did on school improves parent involvement. (Pauw, 2012)
Another thing you could do with social media could be closer teacher support. How great would it be for pupils if they could just tweet for a small explaination about their homework?
I think there are great opportunities left for our education when it comes to using social media or other tools in the classroom.
From my school:
During break I asked another student if they had ever used something like Twitter in class, or letting their pupils use their phones. As part of an assignment. She looked a bit confused and said that things like that weren't supposed to be used in a class. Before I started, I think I would have agreed. But at that moment, near the end of my minor, I saw another opportunity to convince someone that using social media in your class is possible. And not just for fun.
- Kennisnet, Onbekend. Makkelijker leren met sociale media op 18-04-2014 binnengehaald van
- Kennisnet, Onbekend. Brochure Sociale media op school: tips en praktijkvoorbeelden. Op 18-04-2014 binnengehaald van
- Tineke Pauw, 21 september 2012. Hoe kan ik ouderbetrokkenheid vergroten? Binnengehaald op 17-04-14, van http://www.kennisnet.nl/themas/ouderbetrokkenheid/visie-en-aanpak/hoe-kan-ik-ouderbetrokkenheid-vergroten/
We had this presentation about undertaking as teachers.
Can a teacher or one of your pupils be an undertaker during assignments?
What I mean is, do your pupils have the freedom to try new things? Do things that haven't been tested yet? Try out applications or apps you have no clue about how it works? Would you let your pupils explain YOU something instead of the traditional way, you teaching them?
Are you part of the innovators?
I think this is about seeing opportunities instead of boundaries for pupils do develop themselves. And also for teachers.
The ones who are crazy enough willing to make a change, are the ones that might even have a shot at it.
What is needed to stimulate little undertakers in your class?
An organisation or school that supports initiatives.
A rich and challenging learning environment.
And most importantly, a stimulating and supporting coach.
How does this affect me?
I know what I want to achieve. I want to create a class were pupils are being stimulated to explore their talents, teach me new things and having fun in discovering alternative ways.
The medialiteracy model
The original source of this model can be found here: https://www.mediawijzer.net/competentiemodel/
This model has been created by mediawijzer.net
This model has created 10 skills citizens need to be a part of this medialized society.
The first group is concept.
1. Knowing, and realising that your always part of an online society.
2. Understanding how new media is created. In which knowing who you want to reach with your message is extremely important.
3. Knowing that, and understanding how media re-presentate information. This means that people have an opinion, but also that people need to know that things you see or read online aren't the truth. You have to create your own opinion by reading those.
1. Knowing how certain devices and applications work. Also being open-minded to new creations, but being critical in which to use and which are really necessary.
2. Knowing what you want to use, and what is available. This is needed to switch quickly between things you use.
1. Finding relevant information and sharing this with others. Also being critical which information is relevant and which not.
2. Creating content. Knowing what is an opinion and what is a fact.
3. Participating in social networks. In an responsible way.
1. Knowing what you use, how many times you use it and so on. To know what to use and what not.
2. Based on sources, you created your own opinion. Now you know what is relevant you can make your choices in what you want to use, in order to reach your personal goals. Your personal way of trying to achieve these goals will create your digital identity.
What do those arrows mean...?
The arrows are in which way a user is commited.
In the conceptgroup, the user is a bit passive, and for the most part it's just media reaching towards the user.
In the usagegroup the user is more active, and working with for example, devices.
In the communicationgroup the user is working together and interacting using media.
In the strategygroup is part of a cyclicproces. Which means they are continually working on something: doing something, reflecting, adjusting, doing something, reflecting....
Each colored box.
Each of those colored boxes has their own level. For example, creating content. A small child has a lower level of creating content than an adult. So you shouldn't expect the same results from them.
This model seems to be very good and complete. However it hasn't been confirmed that it really works this way yet, so probably it will be fine tuned during a few years.
What did I learn from this model?
Before I started with this minor and heard about this model, I was pretty much like most other students. Partying and having fun, and sharing those photo's across the internet. But now I saw this model and we talked about this during our minor we suddenly realized that potential primairy schools might see us aswell doing this. So I adjusted my Facebook and other accounts to prevent that from happening. From now on I will watch out what I put on the internet and what I don't.
- Competentiemodel. Onbekend. Mediawijzer. Op 08-04-14 binnengehaald van https://www.mediawijzer.net/competentiemodel/
Translation for the English students, starting from the core.
The concept '21st Century Skills' was created by kennisnet.
They stated that we are entering a new world, in which technology is becoming a bigger part in our society. And that means, also our education has to change. Pupils should be teached new skills.
Were do these skills come from?
Jobs are changing, our society is changing from an industrial to an information society and technology is becoming a bigger part of our lives. As kids of this society wouldn't be able to imagine an society were they couldn't go online in an instant, or were it would be forbidden to do so.
What do these skills mean?
- Working together
Being able to adapt, achieving results together, support and inspire each other.
Working together seems like something teachers were always interested in. Even some of our anchestors, for instance, Daltoneducation, has it in their roots. So working together doesn't seem very 'new' to me.
Why is it 21st Century? Because in this information society, alot of people, and so also jobs, are connected to each other. Think about Twitter, Facebook or LinkedIn. People think of new ways to work together from huge distances.
- The skill to solve problems
recognizing problems and setting up plans to solve them.
I think this differs alot between teachers and schools. Some teachers ask pupils to solve problems by working together, and they talk with the pupils when they're done. Other teachers tell pupils what to do and that's it. HUGE differences.
Why is it 21st Century? It's purpose increases. Teachers starting to see the value of letting pupils experiment and solving problems their own.
- Knowing technology
How to use technology in an efficient way. Especially in education. Like I said before, technology isn't going to change education. It's going to support it. And one very big one, using technology in combination with informationskills.
A big problem pupils are facing now is what they find, is that true? Is it evidence-based? So checking your sources, analysing, selecting good sources are important skills.
Why is it 21st Century? This is probably the only real 21st Century Skill, stated by kennisnet themselves. Because we are getting surrounded by technology everyday. And based on research, pupils don't know how to deal with technology, or how to use it. They don't learn it themselves. We have to teach them. - Het digitale kind van nu. 20 Februari 2014. De redactie van Kennisnet. Binnengehaald op 08-04-14 van http://www.kennisnet.nl/themas/mediawijsheid/het-digitale-kind-van-nu/
Creating new ideas, look from different angles, think outside the big black box called guidelines.
Kids re-producing the same paper spider you made isn't called creativity. It's something from our industrial society, were the accent was on producing. I really hope that teachers will compliment pupils that think of new ways, original ideas and praise pupils for being, and most importantly, wanting to be different.
How is this 21st Century? The purpose of having information is changing. As everything is becoming available online. Now the accent is becoming how to deal with information. How can you separate yourself from the rest?: creativity.
- Critical thinking
The ability to create your own opinion, create your own way. Supported by validated sources.
I don't even remember how many times I was frustrated about teachers who just demanded an answer from their pupils. These pupils had no idea what they were talking about or what it ment. Just giving the 'right' answer was the assignment I suppose. But what is the right answer? Looking from an different angle or perspective is a way of critical thinking. And as we just learned that pupils don't think critical because they don't even check their sources, I think we can state that we have to teach them how to be a critical thinker aswell. One of my most favorite ways of doing this is definetly Philosophizing with childeren. Especially historical choices people made is an excellent subject.
Why is it 21st Century? With this huge availability of information, it is key for us to know how to separate the opinions and lies from the truth.
A big thing during working together. Communicating is discribed as sending and receiving messages. But really knowing or understanding what someone actually said. Instead of thinking to know what he said. Seems to be very difficult. Even, if not more, for adults. Appreciating feedback is also such a thing. Like with the thinking hats of Bono. If a black hat (critcial thinker, sometimes a bit negative) gives you feedback, and the only thing you can think about is that he is being negative towards you. Forget that collaboration.
Why is this 21st Century? The way we communicate has changed alot. With technology being the medium between persons, it becomes harder for people to understand what people mean to say. It is only text and emoticons. Also texting is alot easier than actually talking to someone in person. The bad thing about this is that people curse easilier and become harsher.
Communicating isn't only changing because we don't do it directly to each other, we also communicate over bigger distances. Like using skype to chat with a friend who is on a trip somewere far away. Tip: make use of this, and let pupils interview your friend? Or let your friend ask your pupils premade questions?
And last, we can also communicate to big groups all at once using known programs like Twitter, Facebook and stuff like that. If you use this in a smartway, people will know you before you even need a job as a teacher. For instance, we have someone at our minor who gets asked from all over the country to talk to students, or teach for a few days. Just because they know him by Twitter and like his work. Diversity is the key!
- Social and cultural skills
This is mostly about respect, wanting to understand the people around you and working together with all kinds of people.
In my opinion, social skills have always been an underestimated skill. I think teachers and parents should be working closer together to achieve bigger results. And mostly it will improve their child his social skills because the teacher and parent know better what to expect from each other, and they communicate better and more often. But that's just my opinion.
Why is this 21st Century? The boundaries are becoming smaller thanks to this information society. We come in contact with a bigger diversity of people and have to work together with them.
What does this change?
We talked about this with A. van Walraven in our minor. She stated that teachers who teach 21st Century Skills, and thinking they are the 'new skills of the 21st Century' are bad teachers. When I first heard this I was totally blown away. But in some way I think she was right. These skills are new at this moment. But the need for these skills to be educated is very old and our education is slow. We can't adapt our education as fast as the demands change. I think as a teacher, you should use this model as a guidance.
- Minor KLM
- Benodigde vaardigheden voor de 21ste eeuw. Onbekend. Kennisnet. Op 08-04-14 binnengehaald van http://www.kennisnet.nl/themas/21st-century-skills/vaardigheden/benodigde-vaardigheden-voor-de-21ste-eeuw/
The six thinking hats of E. de Bono
Each hats represents some sort of a character. Each with it's own benefits for a group.
The theory behind this book by E. de Bono is that working in a team and discussing subjects requires everyone to have a certain task, in order to achieve higher levels of thinking.
Everyone automatically puts on a hat about a certain subject. This may have various reasons.
By putting on a hat, you react in a certain way. An example:
A group of teachers is deciding if they should use more technology inclass, or not.
A group of teachers that might have bad experiences with technology might have an rather dark opinion about this subject. While a young and enthusiastic teacher might be more open to possibilities. But thanks to this, the teachers with bad experiences might see some opportunities thanks to the young teachers. And thanks to the teachers with bad experiences, the young and maybe 'too' enthusiastic teachers will see some problems they may face when trying to bring more technology inside the class.
So having all kinds of hats during a discussion might be rather confrontional. But it shows certain possibilities or disadvantages you wouldn't have seen without a certain hat in your team.
Now isn't a person just a red hat, or a pure evil dark hat. No, definitely not. People aren't just straight one way. Almost everyone has some parts of different hats. The color of hat you wear might also change during different subjects ofcourse. Someone might be a bit sarcastic about a teacher wearing hats during teaching, but the same person might be very creative when it comes to using technology inside the school.
The different kinds of hats
About information. What are the facts.
Emotional. He lets his feelings in a case guide him.
Optimistic and bright. Open for new possibilities.
Cautious and conservative. Critical thinker.
Creativity, alternatives and new ideas.
The manager. About structure and thinking processes. An observer and guide.
How does this all affect me as a teacher?
At first I felt denied by people with a black or white hat who needed facts, or weren't so easily convinced to try something new. But now I know, it requires different kinds of people in order to bring something to a succes. Everyone has a part to play during a discussion about a subject. And thanks to those hats you hate during these discussions, you will see things you haven't thought about just yet. I think I am a bit yellow and green. I really want to try new things I discover during my journey. And meeting black hats and white hats who let me calm down first, look at the facts and look more cautious, will eventually improve my idea.
Source: Presentation by A. Lammers during minor KLM
Iam experimenting with tools like Plickers, Socrative and Mentimeter. Which are voting systems. It is really fun to see how simple these tools are, but how much they trigger my pupils to vote. Soon i will upload some pictures of my pupils while voting.
Mayer explained, that profit of what you educate is bigger if you change channels. Which also means, don't keep asking questions as a way of voting, but sometimes use something different to keep pupils interested. It isn't profitable to keep using one way of voting. So only using one of these digital voting systems isn't gonna work either. - CTML model by mayer
How did this change my way of educating?
Now i better understand that pupils will get bored if you keep using one way of educating, i will use more different ways of voting for example to keep them interested. When iam preparing a lesson i will first think of a tool that might improve the interest of my pupils and might be something new to boost their creativity.
TPACK: Integration of technology in education
Tpack is a framework to understand and describe the kinds of knowledge needed by a teacher for effective pedagogical practice in a technology enhanced learning environment.
The TPACK: Technological, Pedagogical Content Knowledge.
TPACK consists of 3 subjects you have to consider when you are creating an educative activity.
- Content knowledge, what do you want your pupils to learn?
- Pedagogical knowledge, how do you want your pupils to learn it? And how are you going to explain it to them?
- Technological knowledge, which tools are you going to use to teach it, or are they going to use to explore it?
Source: TPACK framework Mishra. P & Koehler. M.J.
My experiences with TPACK
I think the TPACK game (at the middle of this page) is a great way to encourage and let teachers experiment with how to use technology inschool.
How is this TPACK framework going to help me as a student?
I think this framework is going to help me to let teachers experiment with technology inside school and letting them think about it by using the TPACK game. The needs of pupils are changing, and one of the subjects they need education about is new technology. Alot of teachers don't know how to get started with this change and might want to resist it. But just like kids, discovering while playing a game, might be the right approach.
Another explanation about why some teachers are quite stubborn about 21st Century Skills and using computers inschool.
In The Netherlands there is a text about what teachers should be able to do within 21st Century Skills.
This are the questions the teachers have to ask themselves:
Knowledge: what do I need to know?
Skills: what do I have to be able to do?
Mentality: what do I want to do with it?
Conscious: what is all available?
Active: what, and how can i use it?
Critical: what do I have to do?
If I look at all these questions, I can imagine that teachers are afraid to use new technology. However, they could play the TPACK game to get more comfortable with the 21st Century Skills.
The TPACK theory, and game are about 3 aspects: The technology used (pink), the subject (blue) and the teaching method (yellow).
What the game is about: you have a few stacks of yellow, blue and pink cards. For every layer you try to make up a lesson using the three colors. For instance (see picture) we had to combine and make a lesson about: researching and learning, music and a digital camera.
This activity really triggers you to think in a creative way.
Hattie (2009) The hinge-point
What else I found very amazing, was that Hattie did a lot of researched about what has big effects in education. There lots of sites on the internet about this. Some things even reduce your pupils' learning benefits.
- Kennisnet, Onbekend. TPACK helpt bij integreren ict in jouw les op 18-04-2014 binnengehaald van http://www.kennisnet.nl/themas/ict-bekwaamheid/tpack/
The day started great, because I took the wrong bus and missed the first 30 min. of our lesson...
When I came in, they were talking about the Technology Adoption Life Cycle of Rogers. Very interesting.
When you're comparing his theory with education it all makes alot of sense. I tried to use his theory on the sales of digital school boards in The Netherlands at this moment.
Innovators: a few people in school, who were already very interested in new technology to use inside their classes.
Early adopters: the people noticing that there is something new for sale, and is working like a charm.
Early majority: The level, I think The Netherlands are currently in. Most of the schools already know about, or are using them. However, alot of schools dont know the possibilities about it yet. Or dont feel competent using them.
Late majority: For the early adopters and innovators the product is old already. But the late majority sees the product everywere around them, and they think it's time for them to start the upgrade.
Laggards: The old teachers in school who aren't familiar with this kind of technology, and don't want to know about or use it.
Source: Diffusion of innovation, Rogers. E
After the innovation part, it was time to do an test. A bit wierd, but we were warned that the test probably had a false result. Keeping that in mind, we had to evaluate ourselves during the test what kind of a person we are. Are we the born leaders that want to create and use innovative technology? Or are we the people that want to controll a group and send them towards a goal? I did my best to translate the meanings of the words. Some might have a different meaning than I discribed them below.
Suprisingly, my results were quite accurate!
Usually I am very enthusiastic, have lots of energy and willpower when creating something. However, I am not so good at the start. I am uncertain what I want to product to become or what I want my end achievement to be.
I think that creating scenario's and creativity are quite similar attributes. In my case, the difference is that I am not good at making up scenario's or creating stuff. But like to think outside of the box. Regularity isn't the way I want to go.
Taking distance is very hard for me. When I start, I want to keep going because I am very curious what the end results are going to be. When the product is finished, I can look back and evaluate or adjust during the proces. But it's hard to look back when you want to move forward.
Leadership is a hard one. When no one else does, or if I feel like I want/need to I will lead. But if that isn't the case, I definitely won't suggest myself as a leader.
- Wikipedia, 13 april 2014. Op 18-04-2014 binnengehaald van en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion_of_innovations